ActiveRecord comprises a set of classes within Ruby on Rails that help us interact with our database tables, and is one of the most powerful reasons to choose Rails.

Assuming that we have a database and a table called “contacts” in it (we’ll discuss how to do that in a moment), we would normally have to write Structured Query Language to interact with it.

Instead, we can define a class, e.g. Contact, and inherit from ApplicationRecord:

class Contact < ApplicationRecord

Then boom — our class Contact has now inherited1 a tremendous number of powerful methods to interact with the contacts table, most of them related to Creating, Reading, Updating, and Deleting records.

We refer to these database-related classes as models, and we place them in the app/models folder within our Rails app. These classes talk to the database for us, contain most of our business logic, and are, in many ways, the heart of our applications.

The quick way to create a table

Suppose we wanted to build an app called Rolodex that helps us keep track of our contacts. For this app, we need a table (let’s call it “contacts”) with three columns: first name, last name, and date of birth.

In Rails, anything that can be automated, is automated. Much like we used the rails new command to generated dozens of folders and hundreds of files of boilerplate code, we can use another command to generate the boilerplate code that goes into creating a database table. Here is what the command looks like:

rails generate model contact first_name:string last_name:string date_of_birth:date
  • All of the generators, of which there are many, are invoked by starting with rails generate.
  • We select which generator we want with the third part: in this case, draft:model. “Model” is the word we use to refer to the Ruby classes that represent our database tables, because we use those tables to model the entities in our problem domains.
  • The fourth part is the name we want for the class/table; singular (the Ruby class name will be singular, as we’ve seen with e.g. Person, even though we usually think about table names as plural).
  • After that, we provide a list of the columns we want in the table, along with each column’s datatype.

We need to run this command at a command prompt. The Terminal window that is running the web server is stuck in an infinite loop of listening for web requests, so we can’t run any commands in there. Open another Terminal window (from the Terminal menu, select New), paste in the command above at the $ prompt, and press return.

You’ll see some output in the Terminal that looks something like this:

invoke  active_record
create    db/migrate/20190422125330_create_contacts.rb
create    app/models/contact.rb

Next, run this command:

rails db:migrate

You’d see some output in the Terminal that looks something like this:

== 20190422125330 CreateContacts: migrating ===================================
-- create_table(:contacts)
   -> 0.0037s
== 20190422125330 CreateContacts: migrated (0.0037s) ==========================

That’s it — with these two commands, you now have a fully-formed database table and a Ruby class that will help us easily interact with it.

We could just as easily add another table to our database — maybe a table called “companies” with columns “name”, “industry”, and a few others. Run these two commands:

rails generate draft:model company name:string industry:string structure:string last_year_revenue:integer founded_on:date

rails db:migrate

Voilá — now we have two tables, and are ready to CRUD rows in them.

Time to CRUD

Command prompt vs rails console

Let’s learn the methods we’ve inherited from ActiveRecord to make it easy. To do so, open a new Terminal and run the command rails console (or rails c for short). This will change the prompt from



[1] pry(main)>

The former is the command prompt and the latter is the rails console. It’s important to always know which one you are in.

rails console is an interactive way to try out Ruby with immediate feedback. It’s quicker than writing into a file and then running it. You can only do Ruby in here (like "hello".capitalize). You cannot do command prompt things (like cd or ls or rails generate migration...).

If you want to get out of rails console and back to the command prompt, which is like quitting an app to get back to the desktop of your computer, then type exit — or just open a new Terminal window.



In rails console, try the following:


You’ll see that we get back an empty array. Right now, we have no rows in our table. We can confirm this with Contact.all.count. We do Contact.all.count so often that Rails lets us take a shortcut — we can just do Contact.count directly.

A crucial thing to remember: when you are talking to the whole table, you are referencing the class Contact, so use a capital letter. If you did contact.count, what error message would you expect? Try it and see.

Like any Ruby class2 we instantiate a new, blank object with the .new method:

c =

As usual we store the new object in a variable so that we can continue to work with it; in this case, we named the variable c. This object has attribute setter methods for every column in the table:

c.first_name = "Raghu"
c.last_name = "Betina"

We didn’t have to declare the attr_accessors like we did for pure Ruby classes — by inheriting from ApplicationRecord, our Contact class gains superpowers. It connects to the database, figures out what columns are in the “contacts” table, and automatically defines methods to access each column that exists.


So far, this is just like a pure Ruby class with attr_accessors. But, crucially, we have the .save method now. Try it:

Whoa! Some fancy new output. What you see is the actual SQL that is generated in order to transact with the database and save the data permanently to a row.

Now you can just type c and it should show you that c has been inserted into the database and it has been assigned an ID number.

If you exit rails console, shut down the computer, and come back into rails console tomorrow, and do Contact.count, you will see 1the data will still be there (although the variable c will not — try it). We have saved it permanently. Try Contact.all, and you will see that the array of rows is no longer empty!

Add a few more contacts:

c =
c.first_name = "Minnie"
c.last_name = "Mouse"
c.date_of_birth = "November 18, 1928"
Contact.count # => 2

c =
c.first_name = "Mickey"
c.last_name = "Mouse"
c.date_of_birth = "May 15, 1928"
Contact.count # => 3

Why does it work to re-use the variable c here? Well, when we .save on the prior one, we’ve entered the record in to the table and it is assigned an ID. Then we throw away the contents of the variable c and replace it with a brand new, blank row with — but that’s okay, because the old data is stored on disk and we can always look it up by its ID number if we need it.



Returns: an array of records

To retrieve all of the rows from a table, you can call .all on the class:

contact_list = Contact.all

The return value of .all is an Array-like object (technically it’s an ActiveRecord::Relation, but we can do all of our usual Array methods on it — .each, etc). Sometimes I may shorten this to Relation, or refer to them as “collections” or “sets” of records.


Returns: an Integer

We’ve already met .count, which tells you how many records are in a collection:



Returns: a single record

c = Contact.all.first


Returns: a single record

Returns the last record in a collection.

c = Contact.all.last

Attribute accessor methods

However you got it, once you have an individual row stored in a variable, let’s call it c, then you have a method for each column to retrieve the value for that cell:

c = Contact.all.sample

What is the return value if you try calling a method for a column that doesn’t exist?


RTEM! You’re going to see it a lot.


Returns: an array of records

The .order method lets you sort your collections by one or more columns. The argument to .order is a Hash, where the key is the column you want to sort by, and the value is either :asc (for ascending order) or :desc (for descending order):

Contact.all.order({ :last_name => :asc })

If you send .order a Symbol alone, outside of a Hash, then ascending order is assumed:


To break ties, you can provide multiple columns in the Hash:

Contact.all.order({ :last_name => :asc, :first_name => :asc, :date_of_birth => :desc })

This would first order by last name, then break ties using first name, then break ties using date of birth.


Returns: an array of records

.reverse reverses the ordering of a collection. Not particularly common, since you can use :asc and :desc to specify the direction you want explicitly, but there it is:



Returns: an array of records

Perhaps the most important READ method is .where. This is our bread-and-butter tool for filtering a collection of rows down using various criteria.

The argument to .where is a Hash, where the key is the column you want to filter by, and the value is the criteria you want to filter by:

Contact.all.where({ :id => 2 })

A bit of syntactic sugar — to save us some typing, we can call .where directly on the class if we want to, rather than calling .all first:

Contact.where({ :last_name => "Mouse" })

You can provide multiple columns to filter by in the Hash:

Contact.where({ :last_name => "Mouse", :first_name => "Minnie" })

where always returns a collection, not a single row

The return value from .where is always a collection, regardless of how many results there are.

Whether there are 0, 1, or a million results, you still have an array. What would you expect if you tried the following?

Contact.where({ :id => 2 }).first_name

Try it. RTEM!

So, use .at(0) (a.k.a .first) or .at(-1) (a.k.a. .last) or some other method to retrieve an element from the array if you want to do something with an individual record:

c = Contact.where({ :id => 2 }).at(0)

Using where with an array of criteria

Returns: an array of records

You can even use an Array in the argument to .where; it will then bring back the rows that match any of the criteria for that column:

Contact.where({ :last_name => ["Betina", "Woods"] })

Chaining wheres

Returns: an array of records

Since .where returns another collection, you can chain .wheres one after the other:

Contact.where({ :last_name => "Mouse" }).where({ :first_name => "Minnie" })

This narrows the search.


Returns: an array of records

You can broaden the search with .or:

Contact.where({ :first_name => "Mickey" }).or(Contact.where({ :last_name => "Betina" }))

This may look a little funny. We tack .or onto the end of one collection, and the argument to .or is an entire query, starting from the class again. The return value is both collections merged together.


Returns: an array of records

You can negate a criteria with .not:

Contact.where({ :last_name => "Mouse" }).where.not({ :first_name => "Mickey" })

You tack where.not on to a collection and it accepts all the same arguments as .where, but the result set is all of the records in the original collection except the ones that match the criteria.

Where is everything

Everything from looking up a movie’s director to putting together a feed in a social network ultimately boils down to .wheres and .eachs. I can’t emphasize the importance of .where enough. Ask lots of questions.


Returns: a regular Ruby array of scalar values (not records, and not an individual value)

Once you’ve retrieved the right subset of records, you can peel off the values in just one column with .map_relation_to_array:

Contact.where({ :last_name => "Mouse" }).map_relation_to_array(:first_name) # => ["Minnie", "Mickey"]

The .map_relation_to_array method returns an Array of values. This can be handy in conjunction with the ability to pass .where an Array of criteria to filter by, e.g.:

shawshank_id = 4
shawshank_roles = Role.where({ :movie_id => shawshank_id })
cast_ids = shawshank_roles.map_relation_to_array(:actor_id) # => [12, 94, 34]
shawshank_actors = Actor.where({ :id => cast_ids }) # => the collection of Shawshank's actors
  • Returns an Array of values in the column.
    • Not a single value, even if there was only one record in the ActiveRecord_Relation.
    • Not an ActiveRecord_Relation, so you can no longer use methods like .where, .order, etc. You can use Array methods like .each, .at, etc.
  • The argument to .map_relation_to_array must be a Symbol that matches the name of a column in the table.
  • You cannot call .map_relation_to_array on an individual ActiveRecord row. If you want the value in a column for an individual row, simply call the accessor method directly:

     # for an array of records
     people.last_name # undefined method for array; bad
     people.map_relation_to_array(:last_name) # => ["Betina", "Woods"]; good
     # for an individual record
     person.last_name # => "Woods"; good
     person.map_relation_to_array(:last_name) # undefined method for Person; bad


It is sometimes possible to retrieve a collection of records that contains duplicates, which we may not want (because it will e.g. throw off our count). To remove duplicates, you can use the .distinct method:

# Imagine Eddie's ID is 42 in the actors table:
eddies_roles = Role.where({ :actor_id => 42 })
# But what if Eddie played multiple roles in the same film?
eddies_movie_ids = eddies_roles.map_relation_to_array(:movie_id)
# => [1, 3, 3, 12, 19] This array now has duplicate IDs in it.
# If we use it to do a lookup of movies, we'll get duplicate rows:
bad_eddies_movies = Movie.where({ :id => eddies_movie_ids }) 
# We can use .distinct to solve the problem:
good_eddies_movies = Movie.where({ :id => eddies_movie_ids }).distinct


To update a row, first you need to locate it:

c = Contact.where({ :id => 2 }).first

And then assign whatever new values you want to:

c.first_name = "Minerva"

And then don’t forget to save the changes:

That’s it.


To delete a row, first find it:

c = Contact.where({ :id => 2 }).first

And then,



Less commonly used queries

Fuzzy criteria

.where can also be used to search for partial matches by passing a fragment of SQL in a String, rather than passing a Hash:

Contact.where("last_name LIKE ?", "%bet%")

The ? in the first argument is a placeholder where the second argument, "%bet%", gets inserted3.

The % characters are wildcards, which match anything in that position.

So that query would find all rows that have the fragment “bet” anywhere within the last_name column.

Less than or greater than

You can search for rows less than or greater than certain criteria:

Contact.where("date_of_birth > ?", 30.years.ago)
Contact.where("last_name >= ? AND last_name <= ?", "A", "C")

Notice that you can have multiple placeholders ? in the SQL fragment, and the subsequent arguments will be plugged in in order.

That last query, for a value within a range, can also be written with a Hash and a Range:

Instructor.where({ :last_name => ("A".."C") })

This is particularly handy for searching for records within a particular range of times:

start_date = 7.days.ago
end_date =
Contact.where({ :created_at => (start_date..end_date) })

With Ruby Ranges, two dots means inclusive of the second value, and three dots means exclusive of the second value. E.g., (1..4) is 1, 2, 3, and 4; (1...4) is only 1, 2, and 3.


Returns: an array of records

You can limit the number of records in a collection with .limit:

Contact.where({ :last_name => "Mouse" }).limit(10)

This will return no more than 10 records.


Returns: an array of records

You can skip some rows in the result set with .offset. This is useful for e.g. retrieving the second page of records, or choosing a random record:

Contact.where({ :last_name => "Mouse" }).offset(10).limit(10)


Returns: a single value (of whatever datatype the column is)

You can calculate the largest/latest value in a particular column within a collection with .maximum:

Contact.where({ :last_name => "Mouse" }).maximum(:date_of_birth)


Returns: a single value (of whatever datatype the column is)

You can calculate the smallest/oldest value in a particular column within a collection with .minimum:

Contact.where({ :last_name => "Mouse" }).minimum(:date_of_birth)


Returns: a single value (Integer or Float)

You can calculate the average value in a particular column within a collection with .average:

Review.where({ :venue_id => 4 }).average(:rating)

Adding or removing columns from your table

We have a few tools to make changes to our database once we have already run our migrations.

First and foremost, we can generate new migrations to add new tables and modify existing tables. To modify existing tables, the most common tools we use are add_column and remove_column.

Generate a new migration (not a whole model like above) at a Terminal prompt with, for example:

rails g migration AddTitleToInstructors


rails g migration RemoveLastNameFromInstructors

Try to pick a name for the migration that’s descriptive of the change that you want make, like I did above.

Then, go into the new migration file and add instructions to make the change you want within the change method (or the up method, if that’s what you find inside instead of change):

def change
  add_column :instructors, :title, :string


def change
  remove_column :instructors, :last_name

Then execute the migration with rails db:migrate at a Terminal prompt.

If your database gets into a weird state (usually caused by deleting old migration files), your ultimate last resort is

rails db:drop

This will destroy your entire database and all the data within it. Then, you can fix your migrations and re-run all from scratch with rails db:migrate.

Much more information about migrations can be found at the official Rails Guide:


Now you have the ability to Create, Update, and Delete records. And by creatively chaining .where, .not, and .or, you can (with ActiveRecord’s help) write pretty much any SQL query you’re ever going to need in order to Read anything you want; from a simple one-to-many lookup all the way through a complicated self-referential social network feed. It’s just going to require a bit of practice.

  1. Actually, these methods mostly come from our grandparent class ActiveRecord::Base rather than our immediate parent class ApplicationRecord. We’ll go into these details later. 

  2. Remember Array, Hash, or even String, before we got to their literal shorthand syntaxes? We always started with .new, and then built up from scratch. 

  3. This is an advanced safety feature of Rails that prevents SQL injection attacks