Array is a very good structure for containing multiple objects, but it’s not the only one. In some situations, another structure is a better tool for the job: Hash.

Suppose we have instructors and students:

instructors = ["Raghu", "Logan", "Jelani"]
students = ["Jocelyn", "Arthur", "Tom", "Lindsey"]

Suppose we want add last names and roles?

person1 = ["Raghu", "Betina", "Instructor"]
person2 = ["Jocelyn", "Williams", "Student"]
# etc

p person1.at(0) + " is a " + person1.at(2)
p person2.at(0) + " is a " + person2.at(2)

This may suffice if the list of attributes is small, but six months later when you come back to this code, do you really want to remember which index number was last name and which was first name and which was role? Not to mention always dealing with the array-indexes-begin-with-0-and-not-1 thing in your head.

There’s a better way: rather than having Arrays automatically number each piece of data, we can give them meaningful labels in a Hash.

A brief interlude: Symbols

There is one datatype that we haven’t discussed until now that will come in handy: Symbols.

Symbols are like Strings: a sequence of characters. However, Symbols follow the same rules as variable names:

  • Cannot contain spaces.
  • Can only contain lowercase letters, underscores, and numbers.
  • Cannot begin with a number.

Otherwise, they are just like strings, and we can use them to hold text data:

"hello" # I am a String
:hello  # I am a Symbol

Symbols are created by starting them off with a colon. You don’t need a closing colon, since they cannot contain spaces; Ruby can figure out where they end.

Strings are usually used to contain copy for the user or input from the user; whereas Symbols are mostly used when we, the developers, need to label something internally in our code. That’s why they can’t contain spaces, etc; we’re not going to use them to hold user input. Accordingly, Symbols don’t have as many methods for transforming their contents, like .reverse.

So, that’s that. Symbols are lightweight strings that we, the developers, use when we need to label things. Let’s continue.

Creating hashes

Back to the problem of storing a list of attributes about a person effectively, without mixing them up. Hashes are like Arrays, except each cell isn’t automatically numbered — we get to label each cell ourselves. So instead of representing a person with an Array like ["Raghu", "Betina", "Instructor"], we instead can use a Hash like this:

person1 = Hash.new
p person1

person1.store(:first_name, "Raghu")
p person1

person1.store(:last_name, "Betina")
p person1

person1.store(:role, "Instructor")
p person1

p person1.fetch(:role)

Click here for a REPL to try it.

Click “run” and see what it looks like to build up a Hash. A few things to note:

  • Ruby represents a Hash with curly brackets, {}, as opposed to the square brackets ([]) of an Array.
  • We use the .store method to add elements to a Hash, as opposed to the .push method of Array.
  • The .store method takes two arguments, not one: the first argument is the label, or key to store the element under; and the second argument is the piece of data itself, or the value.
  • Ruby represents each key/value pair by separating them with a =>, known as a “hash rocket”1.
  • As in Arrays, elements in the list (each element is one key/value pair) are separated by a commas.
  • If the key already exists when you try to .store something under it, its value will be replaced.


To retrieve a piece of data from a Hash, we use the .fetch method (as opposed to Array’s .at):

person1 = Hash.new
person1.store(:first_name, "Raghu")
person1.store(:last_name, "Betina")
person1.store(:role, "Instructor")

p person1.fetch(:last_name)

Click here for a REPL to try it.

Beautiful! Now we don’t have to remember that position number 1 is last name, position number 2 is role, etc. We can retrieve objects from the list using meaningful labels instead.

Let’s put it all together with multiple Hashes:

person1 = Hash.new
person1.store(:first_name, "Raghu")
person1.store(:last_name, "Betina")
person1.store(:role, "Instructor")

person2 = Hash.new
person2.store(:first_name, "Jocelyn")
person2.store(:last_name, "Williams")
person2.store(:role, "Student")

p person1.fetch(:first_name) + " is a " + person1.fetch(:role)
p person2.fetch(:first_name) + " is a " + person2.fetch(:role)

Click here for a REPL to try it.

A few things to try:

  • What happens when you try to .fetch using a String like "role"?
  • What happens when you try to .fetch using a key that doesn’t exist, like :middle_name?

Get used to those error messages. You’re going to see them a lot.

fetch fallback

Sometimes you may want to call .fetch using a key that may not be present in the Hash, and you don’t want the program to crash with the “key not found” error message. In that case, you can provide a second argument which will be used as a fallback return value:

person1 = Hash.new
person1.store(:first_name, "Raghu")
person1.store(:last_name, "Betina")
person1.store(:role, "Instructor")

p person1.fetch(:first_name, "None provided")
p person1.fetch(:middle_name, "None provided")

Click here for a REPL to try it.

Hash literals

Like String and Array, there’s a shortcut to creating Hashes: rather than formally instantiating a new Hash with Hash.new and then building it up from scratch one key/value pair at a time with .store, you can type out the hash literal directly into your code:

person1 = { :first_name => "Raghu", :last_name => "Betina", :role => "Instructor" }
person2 = { :first_name => "Jocelyn", :last_name => "Williams", :role => "Student" }

Like with String and Array, this is the style that we’re going to use the vast majority of the time.

In particular, Hashes are very often used as the arguments to methods, because they let us pass in a list of inputs with nice labels. When we get to Ruby on Rails, especially, we will very often type hash literals directly into the parentheses of method arguments, things like:

Movie.where({ :title => "The Shawshank Redemption" })

at shorthand, []

Much like Array’s shorthand for .at, Hash also a shorthand for retrieving elements with .fetch: .[] (and the associated syntactic sugar). So we could write:

person1 = { :first_name => "Raghu", :last_name => "Betina", :role => "Instructor" }

p person1[:last_name]

However, unlike with Array, Hash’s .[] method and .fetch method do not do the exact same thing. Experiment with them and see if you can find the difference:

person1 = { :first_name => "Raghu", :last_name => "Betina", :role => "Instructor" }

p person1.fetch(:last_name)
p person1[:last_name]

Click here for a REPL to try it.

Were you able to find the difference between the two methods?

Hash’s .[] method, when used with a key that is not present in the hash, returns nil rather than throwing an error.

I personally prefer getting the descriptive error message if the key is not present in the hash, because it means that I probably made a typo or some other mistake, and I prefer being alerted to that fact rather the program proceeding quietly only to fail elsewhere. In the rare case that it should be possible for a key to be optionally present in a hash, then I can use a fallback second argument to .fetch, as described above.

That said, out on the internet, using .[] is the most prevalent style of accessing hashes, so you should be familiar with it. But in this text, I will stick with .fetch.

Use .keys to explore

A very important method to use when you’re dealing with Hashes that you didn’t create yourself is .keys:

h = { "a" => 100, "b" => 200, "c" => 300, "d" => 400 }
h.keys   #=> ["a", "b", "c", "d"]

The .keys method returns an Array showing all of the keys that are present in the Hash, so that we know what we can .fetch.

This helps tremendously when dealing with a data structure that we didn’t create ourselves, especially when it’s deeply nested (a hash containing arrays which might contain other hashes, etc).

keys can be anything

The keys in a Hash can be any class — String, Integer, whatever — but we almost always use Symbols as keys to our Hashes. (I like using symbols as the keys simply because since the values are usually strings, syntax highlighting makes keys stand out from values in our code.)

The bottom line

Arrays are very useful for storing a list of things that are all basically the same, and for lists that are of unknown length, and so it’s nice for Ruby to automatically number them for you.

But when you are storing a list of things that are categorically different from one another and you’d rather label them yourself, then Hashes are a better choice. That’s about it!

  1. Rubyists are weird.