If statements

Now that we can get input from our users, we can start to make our programs smart, by behaving differently based on different conditions.

To do this, we need to add a new grammar to our toolbox: the if/end keywords. Here’s how it looks:

Try running this program a few times and see how it behaves. These expressions, which conditonally run some code based on the truth or falseness of some condition, are known as conditionals or if statements.

The basic anatomy of if statements

The anatomy of an if statement is:

if condition
  # code that runs if the condition is true
  1. First comes the if keyword.
  2. After the if, on the same line, comes any Ruby expression, which is evaluated until only one piece of data is left.
  3. If that final return value of condition is “truthy”, then the code on the lines between the if and end keywords is executed.
  4. If the final return value of condition is “falsy”, then the code on the lines between the if and end keywords is ignored.
  5. Either way, the program picks up execution on the next line after the end keyword and continues on.

Don’t forget the end

Every if requires a matching end, and forgetting it is a very common mistake.

My advice: type the end immediately after typing the if so that you don’t forget it; then worry about typing the condition, and the code that comes on the lines between the if and the end.

(While you’re at it, indent the code on the lines between by two spaces so that it is visually clear what’s inside the if statement.)

truthiness and falsiness

Why did I say “truthy” and “falsy” instead of just true and false? Because many — most — Ruby expressions return values other than true or false. Any expression can appear next to an if, and some will cause the code inside the if statement to execute (these values are known as “truthy”) and some will not (these are “falsy”).

In the REPL below, try replacing lucky_number.odd? with each of the following. Before clicking “run” for each one, ask yourself, do you expect to see the output "The condition is truthy." or not?

  • 0
  • "false"
  • []
  • nil
  • true
  • ""
  • false

For how many of the above did you correctly predict the output? What did you learn about what objects count as truthy and what objects count as falsy in Ruby?

It turns out that only false and nil are falsy. All other objects in Ruby are truthy — even 0 and "".


That said, we’ll mostly use expressions after if that return true or false. There are lot of methods that are designed to do this; we’ve seen Integer’s .odd? and .even?, but there are a lot more.

For example, most classes have ways to compare instances of the class to one another:

1 < 2          # "1 is less than 2"
2 < 1          # "2 is less than 1"
24*365 > 10000 # There are more than 10,000 hours in a year
1 == 1         # "1 is equivalent to 1"
1 == 2         # "1 is equivalent to 2"
1 <= 2         # "1 is less than or equal to 2"
1 >= 2         # "1 is greater than or equal to 2"
1 != 1         # "1 is NOT equivalent to 1"
1 != 2         # "1 is NOT equivalent to 2"
"apple" < "banana"
"apple" > "banana"
"apple" == "banana"
"apple" != "banana"

Equivalence vs assignment

Note the difference between the equivalence operator — two equals signs, == — and the variable assignment operator — one equals sign, =. Mixing up the two of them is probably the most common typo programmers make. Don’t say I didn’t warn you!

Multibranch if statements

We can also have multibranch if statements, where we specify fallback conditions to check and code to execute if the first condition is falsy:

  • Note that there is no space in the elsif keyword.
  • Note that there is no e in the middle of the elsif keyword.
  • The conditions are checked in top-down priority, so even if more than one is true, whichever one is first has its branch executed; the rest are ignored.
  • If none are true, the final else fallback branch is executed; but you don’t have to have one if you don’t want one.

Inside a branch of an if statement, you can have as many lines of code as you want — and you can even have whole other multi-branch if statements, if that’s what you need.

Combining conditions with AND and OR

Finally, another handy thing to have in your toolbelt are the logical operators && (AND) and || (OR). These allow you to combine conditions; try these combined conditions out below:

3.odd? && 4.even?
3.odd? && 4.odd?
3.even? && 4.odd?
3.odd? || 4.even?
3.odd? || 4.odd?
3.even? || 4.odd?

Basically, && is stricter than ||; both comparisons have to be true in order for the whole statement to be true when combined with &&; either one being true is sufficient for ||.


Can you create a Rock, Paper, Scissors game?